The birthplace of the St. Bernards is the Swiss Alps. Their rare are Asian mastiffs and Molossian dogs of the ancient Romans, who fell into the mountains during conquests.
In the 11th century, the dogs that lived at the monastery of St. Bernard in the Swiss Alps received the same name. From the 17th century the monks living here began to use dogs to search and rescue travelers in the mountains.
In the Middle Ages, St. Bernards were smaller and more mobile, had a special scent that made it possible to find people who fell under an avalanche. They had the ability to feel the approach of avalanches, than repeatedly saved the life of the inhabitants of the monastery. One of the most famous Saint Bernards was called Barry. Over 10 years of his life, he found and pulled out from under the avalanches of about 40 people.
At the end of the 19th century. the first club of St. Bernard lovers was created and the breed standard was approved. From this period, directed breeding work on this breed began, thanks to him in the 20th century two varieties of St. Bernards appeared: short-haired and long-haired.
In Russia, the history of St. Bernards began with the Red Star kennel, where representatives of the breed were brought in in the 1940s. St. Bernards gained the greatest popularity in the 1960–80s.
DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT. APPEARANCE
Saint Bernard is the owner of a large, but proportional physique. The height at the withers for males should be from 79 cm, for females – from 65 cm. The weight of adult St. Bernards varies from 55 to 100 kg.
St. Bernards have a powerful physique and a gross constitution. The body structure of these animals is not suitable for prolonged active running, but can withstand high power loads. The head is large, the muzzle is square, developed bryl (freely hanging lips on the dog). Small eyes, bulging forehead, ears drooping. The neck is powerful, straight, strong. The chest is wide with developed muscles. The chest is deep, round. The trunk is slightly elongated relative to the limbs. The back is straight, wide. The tail hangs, while moving the tip of the tail is bent.
The coat is well developed.
In long-haired Saint Bernards, the outer hair is long and straight, harsh, tow on the abdomen, hips, tail. In shorthaired Saint Bernards, the outer hair is short, stiff, and tight. Both species have developed undercoat.
The average duration of St. Bernard dogs is 8-10 years.
The main color is white with red or red-brown spots. Meets white with brindle. The color on the face should have a darker shade from brown to black.
CHARACTER AND FEATURES
Saint Bernard is slow, calm and balanced. Do not mind a run, but he likes walking at a calm pace. St. Bernard is well-oriented to people, friendly to others. This is a smart dog, capable of independent work. Loyal to the owner, an excellent companion dog, loves children. St. Bernards are dogs with a strong nervous system and leadership qualities, and therefore require training. Otherwise, St. Bernard becomes a poorly controlled and naughty dog.
CHARACTER AND FEATURES
Acquire thoroughbred Saint Bernards, as well as consult about their price, it is necessary from qualified breeders or in nurseries involved in breeding this breed. We recommend that you refrain from buying a pet if the price seems too low: in this case, you are most likely trying to sell a purebred animal with genetic diseases. Think about how much it will cost you his further treatment, and whether it is worth it.
St. Bernards are not well suited for maintenance in a small apartment. In puppyhood, there should be regular, but not intense, loads in order to avoid injuries of the musculoskeletal system. For an adult dog, you need calm, but long walks, it is not recommended to actively run with St. Bernard. Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun so as not to cause overheating.
Hair care is not complicated. Shampooing is necessary as it gets dirty. For frequent cleansing of the hair, you can use dry shampoo. Shorthair and long-haired St. Bernards is recommended to regularly remove dead hair with a brush.
It is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the eyes and ears.
Susceptibility to diseases
St. Bernards are predisposed to diseases of the musculoskeletal system: dysplasia of the elbow and hip joints, anterior cruciate ligament disease, injuries, arthritis and arthrosis, Wobbler’s syndrome (spinal disorders).
In St. Bernards, there are congenital inversion or eversion of the eyelids, chronic conjunctivitis, otitis media, eczema, and inversion of the stomach. These dogs are prone to obesity and heat stroke.
Proper care and regular veterinary monitoring of the dog’s condition reduce the risks of developing many acquired diseases.